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|The large white (Pieris brassicae), also called cabbage butterfly or cabbage white, belongs to the family Pieridae. The large white is found in a variety of habitats in northern Africa, Asia and Europe. In Europe, the large white is the most well known butterfly. |
|The white admiral (Limenitis camilla), also known as the Eurasian white admiral, is a butterfly in the family Nymphalidae. It is common in Europe and Asia. Adult white admirals reach wingspans of 45 - 52 mm. The upper surface of their wings is black and brown with white spots, while the underside is more colourful. The hind wings have a double row of dark spots. |
|The small white (Pieris rapae) is a butterfly of the family Pieridae. It is common in Europe, Asia, North America and Australia.
The small white reaches wingspans of 40 - 50 mm. Its wings are white with black spots. The front wings have grey to black tips. The undersides of the hind wings are grey to yellow. The caterpillar is a dull green colour with light stripes on the sides. |
|Beeswax (Cera Flava) is a product of bees’ wax glands. It is used to build honeycombs. The wax is initially white, but becomes progressively more yellow as a result of contact with pollen oil (from flower pollen). and comes after previous treatment again as a white wax in the trade.
The wax can be treated to return it to its original colour. In industry most of the wax now used is artificial or synthetic. The largest consumers of beeswax are the pharmaceutical industry and cosmetic manufacturers. Large q...|
...ax is used in the treatment of coughs, colds, muscle and joint pain (heat packs).
In apiculture wax gets recycled. It is for health reasons overaged wax (by impurities dark coloured) was taken by heat and steam melted and cleaned. The resulting white wax is given back to the bees.
|...brownish and reddish hues dominate. The head, chest and abdomen have brownish-yellow hair. Their forewings have a brownish-red upper surface, with a striking pattern of yellow to orange-red spots. There is always a black "eye" patch with a white core near the wing tips. On the bright seam of the wings runs a thin margin. Near the “eyes” are more patches of yellow. which run parallel to the outer edge of the wings. The outer edges of the forewings are convex. The underside of the forewings i...|
...ings runs a thin margin. Near the “eyes” are more patches of yellow. which run parallel to the outer edge of the wings. The outer edges of the forewings are convex. The underside of the forewings is a brownish colour and is mottled black, yellow and white. There is one white "eye" patch near the wing tips.
|The upper surface of the hind wings of the males and females is white. The underside of the hind wings is likewise white but with yellow and black scales, which appear as greenish-white veining and serve as excellent camouflage. This effect is augmented by the male orange tip’s ability to rotate their forewings until they are completely behind the hindwings, so that when their wings are folded the characteristic coloured marki...|
|The males are clearly identifiable due to their colouring, however female orange tips can be confused with other species such as the eastern bath white (Pontia edusa),the small white (Pieris rapae), the mountain dappled white (Euchloe simplonia), Anthocharis damone, Pontia daplidice or Anthocharis euphenoides.
Orange tips live on both, dry meadow rangesand damp meadows or pastures at heights of up to 1500 metres. They can be seen in bright, damp forest, at the ed...|
|...ace of the rear part of the females’ body is usually purplish -brown, dark brown or, in rarer cases, yellowish-brown in colour, the males are darker and have a clear oily sheen. On the side of the upper surface is a small bright yellow to off-white stripe, which sometimes has an indistinct marking on it. This can be completely absent on the body of the males. The females have two white spots which develop with age into two broad stripes. Near the outer sex organ (epigyne) - the females have a white spot, flanked by bright stripes.|
|The anterior section of the body (prosoma) of the females is brown and has thin, white to pale yellow or cream-coloured edges, which appear clearly separated. In some specimens light radial stripes can be seen. The prosoma of the males is dark brown to black, has short hairs and a clear white stripe on both sides. The upper surface of the rear section of the body (opisthosoma) of the females is light brown to brown with dark edges. In the middle, an indistinct leaf shaped pattern (folium) is usually visible. Towards the back of the abdom...|
...th dark edges. In the middle, an indistinct leaf shaped pattern (folium) is usually visible. Towards the back of the abdomen is a marking in the shape of an arrow or angle. Brown spots can sometimes be seen on the front of the abdomen. The sides are white to cream-coloured or light yellow, with the edges clearly separated.
|...bodies are relatively small and oval in shape. The upper surface is covered with scales and has a black base colour. The antennae have eleven segments, the last three of which form a club. The pronotum (neck plate) is covered with reddish-yellow and white scales, with darker patches in the middle and at the sides. The edges of the pronotum also have a distinct antennae furrow. Close to the middle of the black elytra ( wing covers) a broad white stripe can be seen, and there are white spots laterally at the end. The elytra have reddish scales at the seam where they meet and above the peaks. |
|Black wax insects wing (1)|
|white spider with two pink stripes (1)|
|spiders large white abdom (1)|