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|...d plants of their larvae (nymphs). The eggs of some species spend the winter there. The hatched larvae have longer or shorter thorns depending on what species they are. The typical lace like structure of the upper body is absent. In the first larval stage, they still do not have wings, these are formed only from the 2nd and 3rd stage on, and are fully developed by the end of the last larval stage. In most species larval development occurs in 5 stages, in some species, just 4. The metamorphosis of the larvae of lace bugs is incomplete because it does not involve a pupal stage. The transition from nymph to adult lace bug is finished with the last moult. The nymphs of some species of lace bugs overwinter on the food plants. |
|...y larger than those of other blowflies) on rotting meat. The whitish, cylindrical eggs are 1. 6-1. 75 mm in length and 0. 5-0. 7 mm in breadth and taper at the front, while the posterior end is blunt. The larvae hatch after 1-2 days and in the first stage of development reach body lengths of 1. 8-2. 2 mm. They feed on the dung, carrion or garbage, in which they live. In the 2nd larval stage, they are 2. 7-3. 8 mm long. At the end of the 3rd larval stage, the larvae are 13-14 mm in length and they then pupate. The pupae are 8. 4-9. 8 mm long and in size differ from pupae of other species of blow flies. The development time from egg to adult is approximately 38 days in total. |
|The scoliid wasp larvae hatch after about 1 week, under favourable conditions. For 1 - 2 weeks they feed on the body fluids of the host larvae and from the 4th larval stage on they eat the rest of the host larvae. After their last larval stage, scoliid wasps pupate in cocoons, which are often reddish to brown in colour. The Scoliidae larvae of most Palearctic species overwinter in a preliminary pupae stage. About one month after hatching from the eggs, the adult Scoliidae of the new generation hatch from their cocoons.
Scoliidae are occasionally used by humans to combat grubs.|
|The larval stage for most beetle species is the longest period of their lives and can last several years, with the living of the larvae is often similar to the living of the adult beetles. The living of the larvae affects the duration of their larval stage.
In the Palearctic beetles mostly overwinter as pupa and slip off during the spring. Some species overwinter as adult beetles (for example: ladybirds and Hydrophilidae). |
|This bug overwinters in the adult stage. It hides in fallen leaves, bark or in the hollow parts of plants. From May on the larvae hatch, which are green in colour and in July the adult stage is reached. The females lay their eggs on nettles on the upper side of the leaf stalks. Every year, a new generation emerges.|
|The larvae of flesh flies are known as maggots. In the first stage of their development they breathe through their skin. However from the third larval stage on, they use their tracheal system. Maggots feed on animal substrates, some also on carrion. Others are parasitoids and live on earthworms, snails, scorpions, cockroaches, beetles and cicadas.|
|The females lay their eggs on rotting plants, under bark or in reeds, using a special ovipositor which enables them to bore holes. After hatching, the larvae feed initially on the surrounding plant substrates. In a later stage of their development they prey on small insects, just as the adultsdo. After the last larval stage, the larvae pupate. The pupae are spun in a cocoon of silk and have long breathing tubes.|
|...se materials. The larvae reach body lengths of 4-5 mm. Their yellowish to brown bodies resemble woodlice in shape and have appendages in different sizes depending on the species. The larvae of flat-footed flies pupate at the end of the last larval stage, in or on soil. The second brood they have in the year overwinters in the larval stage.
|... later bright orange, then red. After 4-12 days the caterpillars hatch. They are elongated and reach body lengths of 30-35 mm. Young larvae up to the 2nd moulting are reddish-yellow which changes to yellowish brown, in the 3rd to 4th larval stage. above whitish-green and laterally known with fine-grained black dotting (warts). At the end of the last larval stage they are cyan in colour with a dark-green underside. The caterpillar has little green feet. Due to its appearance the caterpillar of the orange tip can be confused with that of the common brimstone butterfly (Gonepteryx rhamni), but can however be...|
|... preferred. The larvae reach body lengths of 4-5 mm. Their yellow to brown bodies are shaped like isopods and have appendages of different sizes according to what species they are. The larvae of flat-footed flies pupate at the end of the last larval stage, in or on the soil. The second generation overwinters in the larval stage. |