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|Rove beetles (Staphylinidae) are members of the order Beetles. There are about 1,554 species in Germany and about, 47,000 globally. Some examples are: Bledius spectabilis, devil's coach-horse beetle, Ontholestes tessellatus, Oxyporus rufus, Paederus littoralis, Staphylinus caesareus, Tachyporus hypnorum, Velleius dilatatus and Anthophagus c...|
...es have greater mobility when entering smallest cavities. The wings are enfolded by the wing covers. The body length of the rove beetle, (depending on type), ranges from 0.5 to 50 mm and the body is usually black or brown in colour. Occasionally species with a metallic blue-violet or blue colour can be encountered. Other species are very hairy. Most rove beetles are good fliers, and often swarm on warm evenings. While larger species of rove beetle search for food in the night, smaller species are active by day.
Rove beetles can be found in litter and humus in diverse habitats. In the species that live in the deeper layers of soil the eyes are poorly developed and they can not fly. Certain species of rove beetles are found in or on the edge of wetlands, other species, in deserts, mountains or near the polar regions. Most, however, live in the tropics.
The dietary habits of rove beetle larvae are generally the same as the adults. While most rove beetles are predatory some species eat fungi, or putrescent animals and plants. The larvae of some species live as parasites? on the pupaeof flies. There are species of rove beetle, which only inhabit birds' nests, mammals' nests, ants' nests, termites' nests or those of wasps. In ants' nests, rove beetles hunt for their hosts, eat carrion or decimate the hatching ants. Even as migrant guests they are to find ...
...ching ants. Even as migrant guests they are to find amongst hunting ants’ armies where it occurs that they ‘ride’ ants instead of walking. Rove beetle have defence glands, the secretions of which can cause blistering and rashes in humans.
Some species of rove beetle can cause damage to strawberries or fruit trees. However, the rove beetle is enormously valuable for the soil and its remineralisation. Furthermore they eat many insects which are regarded as pests in agriculture and forestry.
|Small fruit fly|
|The small fruit fly [Drosophila (Sophophora) melanogaster], also known as the vinegar fly, is a species in the order two-winged flies (Diptera), the suborder brachyceran flies (Brachycera), the infraorder Muscomorpha (section: Schizophora; subsection: Acalyptrata), the superfamily Drosophiloidea, and the family Drosophilidae. This species belongs to the subgenus Drosophila (Sophophora), in the subfamily Drosophilinae, the tribe Drosophilini, the subtribe Drosophilina and the genus Drosophila. Since this species (in genetic research) is an experimental subject of the first rank, the species within the subgenus Drosophila (Sophophora) is allocated in the melanogaster group (species group) and the melanogaster subgroup (species subgroup)] as furthermore in the melanogaster complex (species complex). A scientific synonym for this species is Drosophila melangaster.
|Hylaeus are a genus in the family plasterer bees (Colletidae) within the order Hymenoptera, the suborder Apocrita, the infraorder Aculeata, the superfamily Apoidea and the subfamily Hylaeineae. This genus has numerous species worldwide. In Central Europe around 45 species are common, and in Germany 37.
Hylaeus reach body lengths of 6-9 mm. Their bodies are almost always black and hairless , which rules out immediate determination of Hylaeus species in the field. . Only three species have red as the base colour of their abdomens.
It is typical for all Hylaeus to have a clearly visible marking on their face, yellow or yellowish white in colour, but on the females this may be reduced to a few points at the sides or to narrow ve...|
... yellow or yellowish white in colour, but on the females this may be reduced to a few points at the sides or to narrow vertical stripes on the anterior eye margins , or this marking can be completely absent. The markings on the face vary from species to species, and this therefore allows accurate identification. Many species have bright spots on the chest and legs. Since their bodies are hairless, these bees cannot carry pollen externally. Hylaeus carry pollen in a crop (a pouch in the foregut).
Hylaeus prefer to live on forest edges, in parks and gardens, hedgerows...
|... diet to the adults. Beetles can be classified according to what they eat. There are two types coprophagous and necrophagous. The former feed on excrement (earth-boring dung beetles) and the latter on carrion (Silphidae).
The excretions of both species are from great importance at the remineralization of the soil. Beetles, like all living creatures, are dependent on water. There are species that live under or near the water like hygrophiles or predaceous diving beetles.
Depending on which species they are, beetles fly shorter or longer distances. There are also species that are not capable of flight because (as is the case for most ground beetle species) their wings are missing. There are beetle species producing sounds by moving parts of their bodies. Some beetles are able to generate light (such as fireflies).|
|Bot flies (Oestridae), also botflies, are a family of flies in the order Diptera. There are approximately 100 species found worldwide, 11 of which are encountered in Central Europe. The family of Bot flies is divided into three subfamilies: Oestrinae, Cephenemyiinae and Hypodermatinae. Some examples of species of Bot flies are: sheep bot fly (Oestrus ovis), Gasterophilus intestinalis, Hypoderma diana, Rhinoestrus purpureus, Hypoderma Acteon, Crivellia Silenus, the warble fly (Hypoderma bovis), Hypoderma lineatum and Pharyngomyia picta.
Bot flies reach ...|
... Crivellia Silenus, the warble fly (Hypoderma bovis), Hypoderma lineatum and Pharyngomyia picta.
Bot flies reach body lengths of 10-13 mm. They are covered in thick furry hair. The mouth parts of this fly are often highly degenerated, thus many species do not eat solid food. Some species, however, take in fluid. The well developed, large wings have a central vein spreading out in different angle. The thorax is covered with scales and has a number of bristles at the rear end. Mating takes place at elevated places like trees, hills a...
...ar end. Mating takes place at elevated places like trees, hills and ridges.
Egg laying takes place on host animals, most commonly on hoofed mammals. The larvae always live parasitically in the interior of the host animals (endoparasites). Many species choose specific animals as the host - which body orifice of the host animal is chosen for egg laying also depends on the species. The hatching maggots (larvae) develop accordingly in the nasal mucous membrane, the throat or beneath the skin (subcutis) of their host animals. Egg laying can be a risky business for some females as the larvae hatch very fast and can attack the...
|Some species of lace bugs overwinter as adults. After mating, the fertilized females use their ovipositor to lay their eggs almost exclusively on the underside of the leaves of the food plants of their larvae (nymphs). The eggs of some species spend the winter there. The hatched larvae have longer or shorter thorns depending on what species they are. The typical lace like structure of the upper body is absent. In the first larval stage, they still do not have wings, these are formed only from the 2nd and 3rd stage on, and are fully developed by the end of the last larval stage. In most...|
...they are. The typical lace like structure of the upper body is absent. In the first larval stage, they still do not have wings, these are formed only from the 2nd and 3rd stage on, and are fully developed by the end of the last larval stage. In most species larval development occurs in 5 stages, in some species, just 4. The metamorphosis of the larvae of lace bugs is incomplete because it does not involve a pupal stage. The transition from nymph to adult lace bug is finished with the last moult. The nymphs of some species of lace bugs overwinter on the food plants.
|The diet of Muscidae differs from species to species. There are parasites, blood suckers and also flower visitors. Then there are species that suck fluids of various kinds. Others feed on dead organic material and on the fungi which live within. There are species which live from feces and others which tunnel into plants, eating from their substance.
The larvae live in soil, some also in water. The larval phase ( in total 3 stages) lasts for about 8 days. In Europe the adult flies take 2 to 3 weeks to h...|
... days. In Europe the adult flies take 2 to 3 weeks to hatch. The high reproduction rate of Muscidae (about 8 generations per year), is due to the large number of enemies they have - and not due to a dramatic increase in their numbers.
A number of species (outside Europe) are known to transmit diseases such as dysentery, cholera, hepatitis, polio, anthrax, typhoid fever or sleeping sickness.
|Ichneumon wasps reach body lengths of 10-50 mm. The colouration of their bodies varies. . The basic colour is often black or reddish-brown. Many species have markings in red, white, yellow or brown. The antennae of most species have more than 16 segments. The presence and shape of the areole in the front wings is a major identifying characteristic. The females of many species have a long ovipositor. The abdomen is clearly separated from the front part of the body.
Ichneumon wasps are widespread in various habitats such as mixed forests, deciduous forests, coniferous forests, fields, wetlands, wood shots, clearings ...|
... The abdomen is clearly separated from the front part of the body.
Ichneumon wasps are widespread in various habitats such as mixed forests, deciduous forests, coniferous forests, fields, wetlands, wood shots, clearings and forest deadfall.
Species which parasitise aphids can exploit up to 200 aphids in a week. The females lay their eggs on the surface of aphids. After one to two days, the larvae hatch and then eat the insides of the aphid out . They pupate in the hollowed out body of the aph...
...week. The females lay their eggs on the surface of aphids. After one to two days, the larvae hatch and then eat the insides of the aphid out . They pupate in the hollowed out body of the aphid and after five days, the young adult wasps hatch. Some species specialize in spinning cocoons and live on their eggs.
Because the hatching wasps keep the populations of plant pests down, they are considered very useful. They are also actually used in agriculture to kill plant pests (aphids) or moths....
|Moths and Butterflies (Lepidoptera)|
|The lepidopterans (Lepidoptera), also known as moths and butterflies, represent the most species-rich order of insects. So far, 180, 000 species, in 127 families, have been documented, and about 700 new species are discovered every year. Apart from in the Antarctic, moths and butterflies are found worldwide. In Germany, for example, there are about 3700 species. |
|Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae), also called darkening beetles are a family of beetles which include approximately 20,000 species worldwide, 70 of which are found in Central Europe. Some examples are: the mealworm beetle, superworm, Blaps mortisaga, Blaps lethifera, Onymacris plana, Namib Desert beetle, Pedinus femoralis, Opatrum sabulosum, Phaleria cadaverina, Diaperis bole...|
... in length. Their body shape varies. They are easily confused with beetles from other families. They range in shape from broad, oval and round to long and flat. The beetle can be completely black in colour, black-brown, brown or reddish-yellow. Some species have dots. While the neck shield is mostly the same breadth, the wing covers vary, in some species they are fused together and the second pair of wings is shortened. The antennae comprise 11 parts. Some species have defence glands at the end of their abdomen with which they can exude malodorous secretions. The beetle larvae are long, round and yellowish in color.
Darkling beetles prefer hot and sandy habitats (deserts, steppes (large areas of flat unfor...
|bombus small (3)|
|bombus apple (2)|
|titan beetle larvae (1)|
|bombus hunti (1)|
|small Missouri rove beetles (1)|
|superworm beetle reproduction (1)|
|larvae bombus pascuorum (1)|