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|Pollen is a floury substance, produced by seed plants. It consists of single grains (microspores) with a resistant wall (sporoderm). The sporoderm has an inner (intine) and an outer (exine) structure.
The cell is completely surrounded by the intine. Th...|
... an outer (exine) structure.
The cell is completely surrounded by the intine. The outer layer of the intine has a high pectin content, which allows easier detachment of the exine. The inner intine consists mainly of fibrils (cellulose). When the pollen grain germinates, the intine develops into a pollen tube.
The exine has two-layers and consists mainly of sporopollenin. The structure is determined by the pollen grain. Pollen grains vary in size, shape and surface structure, so that it is possible to identify what plant genus and species they come from. Pollen grains reach average sizes of between 10 and 100 microns. They have one or more apertures, which lack the outer layer of the exine so that the intine can grow through into a pollen tube.
Pollen grains are usually spread singly (monads) but may also be released into the air in groups of two or four (dyads or tetrads). Pollenkitt is capable of holding pollen grains together in groups. This can also be done with sticky threads of sporopollenin, cellulose or protein. Each 4 pollen grains are formed simultaneously in pollen sacs of pollen mother cells. The pollen sacs are situated in the anthers of the stamens. The innermost layer of the exine antheres forms and nourishes the pollen grains. Pollen is spread by wind, water or living organisms. This also leads to pollination.
For many people, wind-transported pollen is problematic because it can cause allergic reactions. Symptoms include: redness of the eyes and watery eyes, sneezing and a runny nose (allergic rhinitis or hay fever). In the countryside, pollen concentration is at its highest in the morning, in the city, in the evening. Consequently rural inhabitants are advised to air between seven pm and midnight and city dwellers, between six and eight am.
Pollen is used in food production. It tastes sweet and has a high content of proteins with enzymatic function, vitamin B and over 20 amino acids. Pollen is thought to aid in the treatment of digestive problems, hair loss, potentially fertility problems, diseases of the nervous system, as well as hay fever.
Due to its durability, pollen can provide an insight into environmental issues of the past. The origin of a given honey can be determined with the aid of the pollen component.
|The legs of honey bees are segmented, the hind legs play an important role in pollen collection. The first sector of the hind legs is greatly widened. On the inner side of this, is a thick line of hair which the bee uses to brush off pollen remains. Pollen is transported to the hive in "baskets" made out of an arrangement of hairs, also located on the hind legs. Like all bees, the honey bee has mouth parts, which can lap up sweet plant secretions (nectar and honeydew). Nectar is transport...|
|Wool Carder Bee / Leafcutting Bee (Anthidium manicatum)|
The males can reach a length of 14 to 18 mm and have 5 spikes on the end of their abdomens.,which they use to defend their territory. Female Anthidium manicatum are 11 to 12 mm in length.
The Anthidium manicatum lives on nectar and pollen, which it collects from plants such as Stachys, sage or motherwort. It nests in pre-existing holes in earth, masonry or wood. The females build individual cells for their eggs using pieces of leaves bound together by a substance they secrete. ...|
... such as Stachys, sage or motherwort. It nests in pre-existing holes in earth, masonry or wood. The females build individual cells for their eggs using pieces of leaves bound together by a substance they secrete. They then supply each cell with pollen or nectar, before introducing an egg into the cell. After egg-laying the cell is sealed. When the larvae hatch, they live on the pollen and nectar for weeks before pupating. The Anthidium manicatum reproduces once a year. The females are active from June to October, the males from June to September. On rainy days the animals take refuge in safe, waterproof cavities.
|...n be completely absent. The markings on the face vary from species to species, and this therefore allows accurate identification. Many species have bright spots on the chest and legs. Since their bodies are hairless, these bees cannot carry pollen externally. Hylaeus carry pollen in a crop (a pouch in the foregut).
Hylaeus prefer to live on forest edges, in parks and gardens, hedgerows,sand pits and clay pits. The adult bees are active from May to September. They feed on the nectar and pollen of various plants such as aster, daisy or sunflower (Asteraceae), bell flowers (Campanulaceae), legumes, peas, beans or pulses (Fabaceae), mint plants (Lamiaceae), dicots (Resedaceae), rose plants (Rosaceae), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare), feverfew (T...|
|.... They vary in colour from black to black-red tones and can also have a metallic sheen. Their hair is like fur and they often have a bright hairy towel on the abdomen. Andrena are counted among the bees which collect by their legs, because the pollen - with the aid of their legs - gets located to their leg hairs. On the sides of the propodeum (the first abdominal segment), the female has a "basket" (made from her hairs) used to transport the pollen to the nest.|
|Bees build hexagonal combs of wax which are used for rearing the young and the storage of pollen and honey. To prevent the introduction of diseases into the hive, cracks and small holes are blocked with an antibiotic "putty", made from tree resin and pollen, called propolis. In addition, all surfaces (including inside the combs) are sealed with a thin film of propolis.|
|... (old birds’ nests) and below ground (abandoned mice nests). The bees use moss, grass and animal hairs to construct a hollow sphere inside the nest. The interior of the hollow sphere is sealed with wax. The queen then forms a small tub of wax, puts pollen in it and then lays 5 to 15 eggs on the pollen. It also builds a second, slightly larger vessel for nectar (for food on rainy days) . In the period up to August the population of the colony grows from 60 to 150 animals. During the months of September and October the colony (with the exceptio...|
|...oney is mainly used as a bread spread. However due to its antibacterial properties, honey is, also used in the field of medicine (in the treatment of wounds).
The main ingredients in honey are: fruit sugar, glucose, water and other sugars, pollen, minerals, proteins, enzymes, amino acids, vitamins and colour and flavour compounds. In Germany, honey is subject to the food law.
There are two kinds of honey : blossom honey (from the nectar of flowers ) and honeydew honey (from the excreta ...|
...ed honey, comb honey, drained honey, pressed honey and stamped honey.
Honey can pose a risk to humans. Honey can contain Clostridium botulinum spores. When ingested by infants, these spores can produce a toxin that can cause infant botulism. Pollen existing in honey also can cause allergic reactions.
|Beeswax (Cera Flava) is a product of bees’ wax glands. It is used to build honeycombs. The wax is initially white, but becomes progressively more yellow as a result of contact with pollen oil (from flower pollen). and comes after previous treatment again as a white wax in the trade.
The wax can be treated to return it to its original colour. In industry most of the wax now used is artificial or synthetic. The largest consumers of beeswax are the pharma...|
|...ly hairy and they resemble bumble bees. They have strikingly large compound eyes and simple eyes fixed to a ‘plinth’ between their antennae. .. Their upper jaws look like clamps. Their probosces are covered with bristles and allow them to collect pollen from long, narrow flowers. Their hind legs have dense fur, rust red to golden red in colour, which facilitates the collection and transport of pollen.
|anthidium manicatum (1)|