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|The andromeda lace bug is only seen in daytime and feeds on plants (phytophagous). As it is not inclined to move much , it is mainly found on the undersides of the leaves of the host plants. It sucks fluid from the leaves’ cells , which causes the leaves to yellow and eventually fall off. Thus the whole plant loses its leaves from top to bottom . Often the host plants die. Some examples of the plants which the andromeda lace bug prefers to eat are : heather species (Ericaceae), Illiciaceae, rhododendron and azalea (rhododendron spp.) as well as some plants of the family Ebenaceae.|
|After mating, the fertilized females lay their eggs at the base of grasses (Poaceae). After hatching, the maggots eat their way into and through the young sprouts and later feed on the young leaves of the grass plants. Further growth of such plants can be disrupted by this, or even prevented. The damage patterns on grass plants vary. Ragged, cracked leaves, are often seen, as are swollen stems at ground level or near the ground, or the formation of 3 to 4 stalks on the same plant. Seedlings may be cut off at the base. The maggots reach body lengths of up to 5 mm. Approxima...|
...ormation of 3 to 4 stalks on the same plant. Seedlings may be cut off at the base. The maggots reach body lengths of up to 5 mm. Approximately 30 days after hatching from the eggs, the maggots have completed their development and they leave the host plants and pupate.
|...eus carry pollen in a crop (a pouch in the foregut).
Hylaeus prefer to live on forest edges, in parks and gardens, hedgerows,sand pits and clay pits. The adult bees are active from May to September. They feed on the nectar and pollen of various plants such as aster, daisy or sunflower (Asteraceae), bell flowers (Campanulaceae), legumes, peas, beans or pulses (Fabaceae), mint plants (Lamiaceae), dicots (Resedaceae), rose plants (Rosaceae), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare), feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), golden marguerite (Anthemis tinctoria) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium).
Hylaeus reproduce either once or several times a year. The females lay their eggs in nests, which...|
|Murky-legged Black Legionnaire|
|...en of the murky-legged black legionnaire appears flattened.
The murky-legged black legionnaire lives in humid forests or in forest edges. It can be seen in early summer on sunlit leaves, flying, or sitting in bushes, hedges or other flowering plants, where it feeds on pollen and nectar and sometimes also on the substrate of rotten plants. It can be found occasionally at dung heaps and also lives in other habitats. The murky-legged black legionnaire is defenseless against its enemies, as are all soldier flies.
Females lay eggs individually on rotting plants. In this humid environment, the larvae develop. Their bodies are uniform in shape, flattened and tapered at the end. They have leathery skin, which is strengthened like a shield in the course of their development in limestone deposits. This also ...|
|...e span of about 1 week and only feed on vegetables (phytophagous). Aside from the open air, they are mainly encountered in greenhouses. After hatching from pupae, the females start feeding immediately. They drill small holes in the top surface of plants’ leaves using their ovipositors and suck up liquid with their mouth parts. The damaged areas on the leaf tissue (which also enable bacteria and fungi to penetrate into the plant) are clearly visible as yellowish stains.
The males live on necta...|
...f tissue (which also enable bacteria and fungi to penetrate into the plant) are clearly visible as yellowish stains.
The males live on nectar or honeydew but they can live without nutrition until they mate. The females lay their eggs on the food plants of the larvae, for example chrysanthemums (hence their name) and gerberas.
In vegetable plantations, chilli plants and potatoes are often affected. The females use their ovipositors to drill into the upper side of leaves and place 50 to 100 (sometimes even up to 400) eggs there. The hatched larvae develop rapidly. At the end of the third and last larval stag...
|...at hedges and in meadows on their search for the shy and inconspicuous females. Oviposition of the fertilized females takes place separately (in rarer cases in small groups) do you mean that the eggs are usually laid singly on the preferred food plants of the caterpillars, such as the cuckoo flower (Cardamine pratensis), bittercress (Cardamine amara), garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and many different Brassicaceae (in former times: Cruciferae). From the latter the female orange tip clearly ...|
... (Alliaria petiolata) and many different Brassicaceae (in former times: Cruciferae). From the latter the female orange tip clearly prefer dame’s rocket (Hesperis matronalis), although this offers little food for the larvae. They prefer to visit plants in damp and half shady biotopes. Food plants are chosen particularly because of their ethereal oil (mustard oil) content, which the females detect using chemosensors, which are on their forelegs. In order to avoid egg laying on the same plant by other orange tips, the female leaves odor...
|Gastrophysa viridula feed exclusively on plants, preferably dock or green sorrel; when these are in short supply they will eat plants from the buckwheat family (Polygonaceae), cabbage family (Brassicaceae), violet family (Violaceae) or borage Family (Boraginaceae). However complete development of the larvae is not possible on all of these alternative food plants.|
|While most species of Silphidae can be found on animal carcasses, others choose fungus, rotting plants, healthy plants and faeces, some only for oviposition. The Silphidae and their larvae live and feed on carrion - necrophagous, on parts of plants - phytophagous, on faeces - coprophagous, or by preying on adult insects, insects’ larvae or on snails. Dendroxena quadrimaculata live off caterpillars, while members of the genus Nicrophorus bury the corpses of small animals (mice, moles etc.) and...|
|Cantharis fusca are found from May to June at all altitudes up to 2000 metres. They live in forest edges, in hedge rows, and in meadows and fields. They are diurnal and usually sit on plants (grasses, herbaceous plants and shrubs) or flowers, in order to feed on small insects (living or dead aphids). Occasionally Cantharis fusca eat the young sprouts of the oak tree), or buds, leaves and nectar and pollen from various other plants. |
|The common green capsid prefers shady, moist habitats. It feeds on herbaceous plants, woody plants and crops. Some examples of food plants are: nettles, sorrel, berries, beets and potatoes. The eggs of the common green capsid overwinter in the bark of 1-2 year old woody plant shoots (eg blackberry). They are 1. 3 mm in length, are cream-coloured, slightly curved and shiny. |
|black eggs on plants (25)|
|white larvae in soil (17)|
|soil larvae (12)|
|insects that live in soil (12)|
|white larvae on plants (10)|
|white bugs on plants (8)|
|bugs that live in soil (7)|