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|... same as the adults. While most rove beetles are predatory some species eat fungi, or putrescent animals and plants. The larvae of some species live as parasites? on the pupaeof flies. There are species of rove beetle, which only inhabit birds' nests, mammals' nests, ants' nests, termites' nests or those of wasps. In ants' nests, rove beetles hunt for their hosts, eat carrion or decimate the hatching ants. Even as migrant guests they are to find amongst hunting ants’ armies where it occurs that they ‘ride’ ants instead of walking. Rove beetle have defence glands, the sec...|
|It is reported that ants domesticate or enslave other ants from different colonies. Ants which form permanent nests most frequently live beneath the ground. Other forms of dwelling are hill nests, wood nests or silk nests. |
|...une. They are often visible on deadnettle (Lamium) or on other species of the mint family (Lamiaceae), as well as on borage (Borago officinalis) and species of the primrose family (Primulaceae).
The females dig tunnels in loose soil for their nests. These tunnels are approximately 100 mm long and sometimes branched. It can happen that several females build their nests very close to each other. The nests are equipped with small chambersshaped like hazelnuts, which are smooth inside and treated with an antibiotic acting secretion. The front brood chamber is often filled with the food supply and is meant to divert parasites’ attention from the broo...|
...taris muralis. In march, the female Sitaris muralis beetles place an egg on the fur of hatched male Anthophora and Amegilla.
During mating the eggs are transferred to the fur of the female bees and are thus transported unnoticed into the bees’ nests. The hatched larvae of the oil beetle feed on the food stores and on the brood of the Anthophora and Amegilla bees.
|In late March, the adult bees of the first generation hatch. The males appear first and fly back and forth over the soil nests on hot days. Mating takes place in April. Immediately afterwards, the fertilized females begin constructing the brood nest in the ground. Nest colonies form/can form, comprising several hundred - up to one thousand - individual nests in a relatively small area. The nests consist of a 160 - 230 mm long main passageway, which can be connected to individual brood chambers. The brood chambers are filled with food for the larvae by the females, a single egg is deposited on the food and the brood chambers are closed. Shor...|
... and then they die too. The larvae are left to fend for themselves until June when they pupate. In early July, the adults of the 2nd generation hatch from their pupae. They are active until September when they die. Their offspring overwinter in soil nests, hatching in March of the following year as adults of the new 1st generation.
|They build nests in the ground for their eggs and the developing offspring. Therefore often serve them cavities in the soil. Inside the nests they erect breeding cells for their larvae. The hatched larvae feed on spiders captured by the female spider wasps. Some species build nests in human dwellings. Others are parasitoids, living in other spider wasps nests. In the latter case, the female lays its eggs inside a dead spider, which just gets carried into the nest of another female spider wasp. This may be on the itinerary, or even the foreign nest. |
|The females lay their eggs in soil nests or ground nests. Either a new nest is dug, at an average depth of 30 cm, or the females look for pre-existing nests from other digger wasps. In the latter case they are not able to distinguish between already occupied and unoccupied nests, which often leads to violent clashes between them and the owners of the nest in the entrance area. The female digs a nest at which the excavated sand or clay is piled around the entrance. |
|The German wasp nests underground. Construction begins in spring. The wasps often nest in spaces previously used by other animals which are then expanded. The colony usually comprises 3000 to 4000 animals. Even nests of 7000 wasps are not uncommon. The nests can have a circumference of 2 meters. The division of labour is organised in the colony. The intensity of the brood care is like that of the bees. The larvae of Vespidae are fed on the meat of insects.|
|After mating, the fertilized females lay their eggs separately in each brood cell in the nests of mason bees (Osmia), Anthophora, potter wasps (Eumenidae), pill wasps (Eumenes), Vespidae or sphecoid wasps (Spheciformes). The host insects try to prevent the rubytail wasps from entering their nests, however the latter are not only equipped with a strong chitin-armoured surface, but are also able to roll their bodies and thus significantly can reduce their body surface. This protects them against bites and helps them to penetrate the narrow pas...|
...er are not only equipped with a strong chitin-armoured surface, but are also able to roll their bodies and thus significantly can reduce their body surface. This protects them against bites and helps them to penetrate the narrow passages of the host nests. Thus, the rubytail wasp remains largely intact, with the exception of the wings, which sometimes get damaged.
|Queens overwinter. They appear in March or April. Bombus pascuorum nest both above ground (old birds’ nests) and below ground (abandoned mice nests). The bees use moss, grass and animal hairs to construct a hollow sphere inside the nest. The interior of the hollow sphere is sealed with wax. The queen then forms a small tub of wax, puts pollen in it and then lays 5 to 15 eggs on the pollen. It...|
|Bombus lapidarius nests in stone walls or clusters under piles of rocks. It is also found in straw in stables or in abandoned bird nests.
A colony of Bombus lapidarius comprises 100 to 200 workers. They prefer nectar from clover and deadnettles. In 2005, Bombus lapidarius was the Insect of the Year.
|beetle wasp (4)|
|beetle eats wasp (1)|
|beetle egg casings above ground (1)|