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|The meadow brown (Maniola jurtina) is a species in the order butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) and the family Nymphalidae. It is common in Europe, North America and Asia. Meadow browns reach wingspans of 40 - 50 mm. In the females, the upper surface of the wings is dark brown. The front wings have a yellow-orange band, and a dark, round spot with a white centre which resembles an eye. The males are smaller and have a simila...|
|The caterpillar is green. It has a dark stripe on its upper surface. The last segment bears the forked tail. The meadow brown is found almost everywhere, but is rare above 1600 metres.
Eggs are laid on the soil or on grass. The caterpillars shed their skin twice. They overwinter and pupate in May. The cocoon is spun on a blade of grass and is yellowish-green. The...|
...und almost everywhere, but is rare above 1600 metres.
Eggs are laid on the soil or on grass. The caterpillars shed their skin twice. They overwinter and pupate in May. The cocoon is spun on a blade of grass and is yellowish-green. The next adult meadow browns emerge in June.
The meadow brown is active from June to September. It reproduces once a year.
|..., honey and for the brood are built from wax. When the labor force hatches the nest expands to accommodate up to 500 bumblebees. Nests in soil can have a depth of 1.5 metres. Bombus terrestris live from March to October and are found in forests, on meadow slopes, and in gardens or fields. They can be encountered from the lowlands to the mountains. The workers of the Bombus terrestris practice cannibalism, which can be especially dangerous for the eggs of the next brood.|
|...he last 30 years in Western Europe especially in Scotland and Ireland, this is attributed to climatic changes.However this species is in decline in Central Europe. Although numerous biotopes have been lost due to the expansion of agriculture onto meadow areas, the orange tip is not considered endangered. This species reproduces once a year.|
|...fused with other species such as the eastern bath white (Pontia edusa),the small white (Pieris rapae), the mountain dappled white (Euchloe simplonia), Anthocharis damone, Pontia daplidice or Anthocharis euphenoides.
Orange tips live on both, dry meadow rangesand damp meadows or pastures at heights of up to 1500 metres. They can be seen in bright, damp forest, at the edges of damp forest, at small lakes, in brook valleys, at river banks or dykes, in moorlands, in back gardens, at railway cuttings or in dirt roads.|
|... pearly heath (Coenonympha arcania), chestnut heath (Coenonympha glycerion), scarce heath (Coenonympha hero), small heath (Coenonympha pamphilus), the ringlet (Aphantopus hyperantus), scotch argus (Erebia aethiops), woodland ringlet (Erebia medusa), meadow brown (Maniola jurtina), grayling (Hipparchia semele), hermit (Chazara briseis) and great banded grayling (Brintesia circe).|
|Nymphalidae - Meadow Brown - Maniola jurtina|
|Meadow Froghopper - Philaenus spumarius - Head|
|Meadow flea (1)|