Photography with cameras
Nikon D3x, Nikon D300, Canon 50D
Image editing with Photoshop
|Seite 1 von 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 |
|...ncountered in greenhouses. After hatching from pupae, the females start feeding immediately. They drill small holes in the top surface of plantsí leaves using their ovipositors and suck up liquid with their mouth parts. The damaged areas on the leaf tissue (which also enable bacteria and fungi to penetrate into the plant) are clearly visible as yellowish stains.
The males live on nectar or honeydew but they can live without nutrition until they mate. The females lay their eggs on the food p...|
...p to 400) eggs there. The hatched larvae develop rapidly. At the end of the third and last larval stage the bodies of the larvae can reach lengths of up to 3 mm. The bodies are yellowish-white in colour and have no legs. The larvae remain in the leaf and bite twisting (serpentine like) passageways into the cell tissues by moving their mouth hooks up and down. Hence the English name "Serpentine leafminers" for the genus Liriomyza. The outer layer of the leaves remains intact.
After 4 days the larvae are fully developed and leave the leavesí interior, through a slit, in order to pupate. The development from egg to pupae (reddish-yellow ...
...vae are fully developed and leave the leavesí interior, through a slit, in order to pupate. The development from egg to pupae (reddish-yellow to brown in colour) to adult takes about 17 days.
Endoparasites are natural enemies of the Chrysanthemum leaf miner larvae, for example, the larvae of the ichneumon wasps Dacnusa sibirica and Diglyphus isaea. The ichneumon wasps lay their eggs in the larvae of the Chrysanthemum leaf miner. The hatching wasp larvae cause mass deaths of the host larvae by feeding on their insides. Amongst humans, the Chrysanthemum leaf miner ( is regarded as a pest when encountered in greenhouses and plantations, especially en masse as they can cause significant damage and crop yield losses. Pesticides are of little use as leaf-miner flies have developed a resistance to the poison and it only kills more of their natural enemies.
|The adult Leaf beetle is between 1 and 18 mm in length. The body is domed and ovoid in shape and the coloring varies, from multicoloured to shiny and metallic. The surface of the leaf beetle is smooth. All leaf beetles have wings. The wings are only rarely shortened. The Leaf beetle has a roundish head and a proboscis. The antennae are usually shorter than the torso. Leaf beetles have round eyes and feed on leaves. |
|... (without males). The females of the spring generation leave the soil in early May and lay their eggs, in June, on the leaves of different plants, such as cherry, pear, juneberry, mountain ash, hawthorn, quince, birch or roses. They scratch into the leaf tissue with their ovipositor, forming a small pocket in which a single egg is deposited. After 2 weeks, the larvae hatch and crawl sluggishly on top of the leaf and eat the tissue under scraping. They skeletonize individual leaf parts without the venation (ribs, leaf veins) and the lower epidermis. The dry leaves go brown or roll up. The larvae (cherry slug) produce no more mucus in the final stage of their development. In July, they drop from the leaf and immediately create an egg-shaped tissue below the soilís surface, in which they quickly pupate. About 2 weeks later (in July and August), the adults of the 2nd cherry slug generation hatch, mate and lay eggs. The larvae (cherry slugs) are active...|
|Leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) are a large family in the beetle order. In Germany, there are over 470 different species and there are 50,000 species around the world. There are many different kinds of Leaf beetle: Flea beetles, Seed beetles, Tortoise beetles, Chrysomenlinae (Colorado potato beetle, Chrysomela populi, Chrysolina fastuosa), Clythrinae, Criocerinae (Cereal leaf beetle, Common asparagus beetle, Scarlet lily beetle), Cryptocephalinae, Donaciinae (Donacia semicuprea) and Galerucinae (Agelastica alni, Xanthogaleruca luteola).|
|The larvae of rose leafhoppers are cream coloured. Rose leafhoppers and their larvae pierce the leaf tissue and suck plant juices from the underside of rose petals. The rose plants initially show a fine, white and yellow mottling on the leaves. Rose leafhoppers usually start sucking along the leaf veins and later spread out onto the whole leaf. After a while the leaves of infected plants are densely dotted with numerous pale stains and they then wither and fall off. Similar damage is caused by spider mites. For spider mite infestation, the evidence is the lack of Rose leafhopper and their missing larvae on the leavesí undersides. |
|Chrysanthemum leaf miner|
|The chrysanthemum leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii), in the order Diptera, suborder Brachycera, infraorder Muscomorpha (division: Schizophora, subdivision: Acalyptratae) and superfamily Opomyzoidea, belongs to the family of leaf-miner flies (Agromyzidae), to the subfamily Phytomyzinae and to the genus Serpentine leafminers (Liriomyza).|
|The leaf-miner flies (Agromyzidae) are a family in the order Diptera, the suborder Brachycera, the infraorder Muscomorpha (section: Schizophora; subsection: Acalyptratae) and the superfamily Opomyzoidea. The leaf-miner flies are divided into the subfamilies Phytomyzinae and Agromyzinae. 2500 to 3000 species exist worldwide, 906 of which occur in Europe, 350 in Central Europe. Some examples of these species are: Liriomyza trifolii, Agromyza parvicornis, Agr...|
|Leaf-miner flies have a life expectancy of about 7 days. During this time a female lays up to 400 eggs. When leaf-miner flies occur in large numbers, they can cause significant damage to crops. This led to the extensive use of pesticides in the past. However after initial successes, leaf-miner flies developed resistance to these poisons so that today they are increasingly combatted using their natural enemies, such as the parasitic wasps Dacnusa sibirica and Diglyphus isaea.|
|...ual plant species (monophagous) or on a limited number of plant families (oligophagous). This is reflected in the name of each species (hawthorn lace bug, sugarcane lace bug, avocado lace bug, azalea lace bug etc. ). Lace bugs sit on the flowers and leaf undersides of their host plants. These insects are rather inactive and mostly hide between plantís hairs, spines or in deeper holes. When disturbed they are unlikely to escape. Lace bugs feed on plant juices, which they remove from the epidermis lay...|
...s of their host plants. These insects are rather inactive and mostly hide between plantís hairs, spines or in deeper holes. When disturbed they are unlikely to escape. Lace bugs feed on plant juices, which they remove from the epidermis layer of the leaf undersides with their piercing and sucking mouth parts. When the leaf cells are empty, the damaged area is discoloured bronze or silver. Each individual spends its entire life on the one plant, if not on the same plant part.
|...ir eggs on the upperside of the leaves. The eggs are shaped like a cone, grooved, and greenish-grey in colour. They remain on the leaves for 3 to 5 days before the larvae hatch. When the larvae (caterpillars) have hatched, they build a tissue on the leaf, which initially covers the tip and then the whole leaf, under which they can eat undisturbed. The web, however (as in the case of thistles) between leaf growth and stem can be mounted. |
|honey beetles (3)|
|oriental leaf beetle (1)|
|chrysolina fastuosa roses (1)|
|eggs on underside of rose leaves (1)|
|leaf sucking flies (1)|
|leaf hoppers (1)|
|eggs on rose leave (1)|