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|...the food plants of their larvae (nymphs). The eggs of some species spend the winter there. The hatched larvae have longer or shorter thorns depending on what species they are. The typical lace like structure of the upper body is absent. In the first larval stage, they still do not have wings, these are formed only from the 2nd and 3rd stage on, and are fully developed by the end of the last larval stage. In most species larval development occurs in 5 stages, in some species, just 4. The metamorphosis of the larvae of lace bugs is incomplete because it does not involve a pupal stage. The transition from nymph to adult lace bug is finished with the last moult. The nymphs of...|
|The larval stage for most beetle species is the longest period of their lives and can last several years, with the living of the larvae is often similar to the living of the adult beetles. The living of the larvae affects the duration of their larval stage.
In the Palearctic beetles mostly overwinter as pupa and slip off during the spring. Some species overwinter as adult beetles (for example: ladybirds and Hydrophilidae). |
|The small tortoiseshell produces 2 to 3 new generations a year. They can be encountered from March to October. They overwinter in protected places. Egg-laying occurs after overwintering, on the undersides of the leaves of the larval food plants, grand nettle, for example. A clutch comprises approximately 50 to 200 eggs. The young caterpillars, which hatch after a few days, are gregarious and live in self spinned tissue. At the end of the larval period, lasting 1 to 2 months, they are living solitarily or in small groups. The caterpillars then pupate. The pupae are brown or light green with shimmering patches and are covered in spines. 12 days after pupating the small tortoiseshell butterfl...|
|... on these materials. The larvae reach body lengths of 4-5 mm. Their yellowish to brown bodies resemble woodlice in shape and have appendages in different sizes depending on the species. The larvae of flat-footed flies pupate at the end of the last larval stage, in or on soil. The second brood they have in the year overwinters in the larval stage.
|...olour, later bright orange, then red. After 4-12 days the caterpillars hatch. They are elongated and reach body lengths of 30-35 mm. Young larvae up to the 2nd moulting are reddish-yellow which changes to yellowish brown, in the 3rd to 4th larval stage. above whitish-green and laterally known with fine-grained black dotting (warts). At the end of the last larval stage they are cyan in colour with a dark-green underside. The caterpillar has little green feet. Due to its appearance the caterpillar of the orange tip can be confused with that of the common brimstone butterfly (Gonepteryx rhamni), but can howe...|
|... in breadth and taper at the front, while the posterior end is blunt. The larvae hatch after 1-2 days and in the first stage of development reach body lengths of 1. 8-2. 2 mm. They feed on the dung, carrion or garbage, in which they live. In the 2nd larval stage, they are 2. 7-3. 8 mm long. At the end of the 3rd larval stage, the larvae are 13-14 mm in length and they then pupate. The pupae are 8. 4-9. 8 mm long and in size differ from pupae of other species of blow flies. The development time from egg to adult is approximately 38 days in total. |
|...nus) is preferred. The larvae reach body lengths of 4-5 mm. Their yellow to brown bodies are shaped like isopods and have appendages of different sizes according to what species they are. The larvae of flat-footed flies pupate at the end of the last larval stage, in or on the soil. The second generation overwinters in the larval stage. |
|The scoliid wasp larvae hatch after about 1 week, under favourable conditions. For 1 - 2 weeks they feed on the body fluids of the host larvae and from the 4th larval stage on they eat the rest of the host larvae. After their last larval stage, scoliid wasps pupate in cocoons, which are often reddish to brown in colour. The Scoliidae larvae of most Palearctic species overwinter in a preliminary pupae stage. About one month after hatching from the eggs, the adult Scoliidae of the...|
|The eyes of the larvae are red. Their antennae and legs are transparent, while the rest of the body is yellowish. From the beginning of the 2nd larval stage on (5 days) the nymphs start eating. The head, thorax, antennae and legs are now black. There is a yellow patch on each outer side of the upper surface of the chest. The abdomen is red, as are the 2nd, 3rd and 4th segments of the antennae. In ...|
...s) the nymphs start eating. The head, thorax, antennae and legs are now black. There is a yellow patch on each outer side of the upper surface of the chest. The abdomen is red, as are the 2nd, 3rd and 4th segments of the antennae. In the 3rd and 4th larval stages (7 days), the body shape changes and shades of green start to predominate in the colouration. In the 5th stage (8 days) the wings begin to grow. The abdomen is yellowish green now and has red spots on its axis in the middle. During the 8th da...
|...eria), which they eat with the help of their mouth parts, which are housed in a telescopic proboscis made from chitin. They breathe through two visible, protuberant tubes. Approximately 24 hours after hatching the larvae moult and thus reach the 2nd larval stage. After another 3 days, and 2 further larval stages, the development of the maggots ( now brownish in colour and about 3 mm in length ) is complete. They develop within their third skin into a barrel-shaped pupa and remain there for 4 days. After that, the adult flies of the new generation hat...|