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|...h also enable bacteria and fungi to penetrate into the plant) are clearly visible as yellowish stains.
The males live on nectar or honeydew but they can live without nutrition until they mate. The females lay their eggs on the food plants of the larvae, for example chrysanthemums (hence their name) and gerberas.
In vegetable plantations, chilli plants and potatoes are often affected. The females use their ovipositors to drill into the upper side of leaves and place 50 to 100 (sometimes even ...|
...eir name) and gerberas.
In vegetable plantations, chilli plants and potatoes are often affected. The females use their ovipositors to drill into the upper side of leaves and place 50 to 100 (sometimes even up to 400) eggs there. The hatched larvae develop rapidly. At the end of the third and last larval stage the bodies of the larvae can reach lengths of up to 3 mm. The bodies are yellowish-white in colour and have no legs. The larvae remain in the leaf and bite twisting (serpentine like) passageways into the cell tissues by moving their mouth hooks up and down. Hence the English name "Serpentine leafminers" for the genus Liriomyza. The outer layer of the leaves rema...
...isting (serpentine like) passageways into the cell tissues by moving their mouth hooks up and down. Hence the English name "Serpentine leafminers" for the genus Liriomyza. The outer layer of the leaves remains intact.
After 4 days the larvae are fully developed and leave the leavesí interior, through a slit, in order to pupate. The development from egg to pupae (reddish-yellow to brown in colour) to adult takes about 17 days.
Endoparasites are natural enemies of the Chrysanthemum lea...
...ly developed and leave the leavesí interior, through a slit, in order to pupate. The development from egg to pupae (reddish-yellow to brown in colour) to adult takes about 17 days.
Endoparasites are natural enemies of the Chrysanthemum leaf miner larvae, for example, the larvae of the ichneumon wasps Dacnusa sibirica and Diglyphus isaea. The ichneumon wasps lay their eggs in the larvae of the Chrysanthemum leaf miner. The hatching wasp larvae cause mass deaths of the host larvae by feeding on their insides. Amongst humans, the Chrysanthemum leaf miner ( is regarded as a pest when encountered in greenhouses and plantations, especially en masse as they can cause significant damage and crop yield losses. Pesticides are of li...
|Adult tachina flies feed on honeydew, nectar, vegetable juices, feces or on carrion. Their larvae feed parasitically on all kinds of larvae, pupae and adult insects. This includes caterpillars, beetles (larvae and adults) and the larvae of various Diptera and arthropods. The larvae of the tachina flies enter their host animals in different ways. Firstly through ingestion of their eggs, secondly through oviposition directly on the host animal, or thirdly through the hatched larvaeís direct entry into the host animal. Usually the host animals die before the larvaeís development is complete. The pupation of the larvae usually occurs outside the host animal.
Since the larvae of many tachina flies kill pests, they are very welcome in the agriculture and forestry industry. |
|When the rubytail wasplarvae have hatched, they (after having scoured the aisles of the nest of food competitors) feed on the eggs or larvae of their hosts. Rubytail wasp larvae always hatch before their hostís larvae. Approximately 14 days after the rubytail wasp larvae hatch, even the food supplies of their hosts (only insects, no pollen) have been consumed, and they spin a cocoon for themselves in the hostís nest and pupate, either immediately, and then either to fly as another summer generation in the same year,...|
...len) have been consumed, and they spin a cocoon for themselves in the hostís nest and pupate, either immediately, and then either to fly as another summer generation in the same year, or to overwinter inside of the cocoon. This assumes that the host larvae overwinter as well. The rubytail wasp is able to synchronize its development with the annual cycle of the various host larvae.
|The females lay their eggs, singly or in groups of up to 3000, in humus-rich soil. The larvae develop in the upper humus layers of grasslands and forests, among fallen leaves and dead vegetation or near tree stumps. They are hairy in the early stages of development. These hairs later form spiky projections.
The chest segments of the larvae are equipped with 10 pairs of invertebrate tracheae which supply the larvae with oxygen. The larvae can be very large. The larvae of Bibio clavipes are cold resistant and overwinter. They are herbivores but can also feed on carrion. They feed on both living and dead plants. At the end of their development, the larvae pupate in the soil. The pupae are equipped with breathing horns which lengths are limited. |
|...re their long, strong legs which they use to capture prey.
Adult robber fliesí ways of living are as varied as their biodiversity. Robber flies can be encountered in different habitats, from forests to sandy areas.
Less is known about their larvae They live in soil or in the woods and, like the adult flies, feed on other insects and their larvae (mainly on scarab beetlesí larvae, or on the larvae of beetles which live in wood). The larval stage takes 1-2 years before the larvae pupate.
Adult robber flies ambush other insects in flight. For this purpose they perch and wait. . If an insect is flying in their vicinity, the robber fly flies up into the air, attacks and stings.|
|Sheep bot fly|
|...low only a small quantity of food to be ingested. The large, strong wings are brownish in colour. The legs are dark, hairy, and strong. The sheep bot fly is active in summer.
The females lay their eggs in the nostrils or eyes of sheep. The larvae hatch from their eggs inside the females and are shot into the host animals in drops of liquid. The host animals resist this. The laying of the maggots must be done quickly, otherwise the mother will be attacked by her own brood. The larvae, approximately 500 in number, nest in the nasal cavities and sinuses of the sheep, remaining there for months. In the spring of the following year, the host animalsalready show symptoms such as sneezing and inflammatory discharge.
The larvae are up to 30 mm in length. After the last larval stage, the larvae are sneezed or coughed out by the host animals and fall down to the soil in which they pupate. The sheep bot fly occasionally lays its larvae in humans, especially in the eyes.
|... tarsi appear reddish brown to dark brown in colour.
The hind legs have long hairs that aid in swimming. The water scavenger beetle prefers to live in and on smaller bodies of waters with sufficient sunlight. They are often found (as adults or larvae) floating on the surface of salt water or brackish water (mixture of river and sea water). The adults eat rotten plant debris. They surface for air head first and trap air to breath under their wing covers (elytra) and "row" themselves...|
... (wet or shiny car roofs, windows, etc.) having confused them with open waters.
After mating, the oviposition of the females happens in cocoons near the surface of water where the eggs are glued to water plants. Approximately 8-10 days later the larvae (with body lengths of 3-4 mm) hatch. They increase rapidly in size . The larvae feed (starting at the lastest three days after hatching) ) on smaller aquatic animals, and are even prone to cannibalism. In water they catch floating prey with their clamp-like mouthparts (mandibles), hold them tight and swim with the living prey ...
...backwards with tracking the prey over the shore. They crush them with their mandibles. The exoskeleton of the prey gets covered over and over again with intestinal secretions. The prey is then kneaded into a pulpy mass which can be sucked up by the larvae. This takes 2-3 minutes. Finally the larva leaves the emptied skeleton and creeps forward back into the water. Cannibalism can become so prevalent among the larvae that they prefer to eat each other than to attack other insects.
|The larvae hatch in spring (April or May), although the timing depends on the weather. They feed on the same plants as the adults. Their upper body is covered with spikes of different lengths, which sometimes split into two. The lattice-like structure on the s...|
...ants as the adults. Their upper body is covered with spikes of different lengths, which sometimes split into two. The lattice-like structure on the surface of the body (which is characteristic of the species) is not yet apparent on the bodies of the larvae. Like the adult bugs, they are covered with waxy secretions from their glands which make their surface look powdered. The development of the larvae takes place in 5 stages and takes 20 to 70 days depending on climatic conditions Flying larvae are rarely seen. The larvae are not very eager to move and often hide in small cavities or between parts of plants, and when disturbed, show little inclination to leave. The andromeda lace bug is primarily regarded as a crop pest by humans.
|After mating, the fertilized females lay their yellowish to reddish-brown eggs, individually or in small groups, on the food plants of their larvae. The larvae are yellowish after hatching and resemble caterpillars. They have 8 small pairs of legs attached to the abdomen. Their antennae have 4 - 5 segments. The larvae of Tenthredo campestris feed on the leaves of various herbaceous plants, trees and shrubs. Their food of preference is ground-elder (Aegopodium podagraria). When disturbed, the larvae curl into a "S" and resemble small snakes. En masse these larvae can cause major damage to shrubs and trees.|
|After completion of the nests, the eggs are laid, one in each breeding cell. After 2-3 days the white maggot-like larvae hatch, and are fed with captured honey bees by the mother. The female larvae clearly receive greater consideration than the males. The larvae live inside the body of the bees. After each flight for new supplies of bees the mother bee wolf seals the entrance to the tunnel, to protect the larvae from intruders (eg beetles). When the nest is located on steep slopes, however, the entrances stay open. About a week after hatching, the larvae spin a bottle-shaped cocoon, in which they pupate. |