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After 4 days the larvae are fully developed and leave the leavesí interior, through a slit, in order to pupate. The development from egg to pupae (reddish-yellow to brown in colour) to adult takes about 17 days.
Endoparasites are natural enemies of the Chrysanthemum leaf miner larvae, for example, the larvae of the ichneumon wasps Dacnusa sibirica and Diglyphus isaea. The ichneumon wasps lay their eggs in the larvae of the Chrysanthemum leaf miner. The hatching wasp larvae cause mass dea...|
...d in greenhouses and plantations, especially en masse as they can cause significant damage and crop yield losses. Pesticides are of little use as leaf-miner flies have developed a resistance to the poison and it only kills more of their natural enemies.
|Assassin bugs, ground beetles, predatory mites and spiders are natural enemies of rose leafhoppers. The rose leafhopper can be a serious problem in enclosed spaces if its natural enemies are absent. |
|The most important natural enemies of the beetles are pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi), parasites (Ichneumon wasps, tachina flies, Acarina) and enemies like birds, hedgehogs, shrews, bats, reptiles, spiders, fish, amphibians and even other species of beetle which feed on them.
Beetles are often divided by humans into two groups: those that are harmful and those that are beneficial. Sitophilus o...|
|Because there is a huge variety of hoverflies their appearance and colour varies enormously. They can look similar to wasps, but they are not dangerous and have no sting. This mimicry protects them from their enemies. The body shape of the hoverfly varies from long and thin to compact. Some species are hairy. The front part of the head is shaped like a muzzle and the mouth parts are designed for sucking up liquid food such as nectar and for chewing pollen. ...|
|Ladybirds (ladybugs, lady beetles)|
|...the body and is sometimes different to the coloring of the body. The body color ranges from light beige to yellow, orange, all the brown tones, pink, red to black. Young ladybirds are initially white or yellowish. The coloring serves as a warning to enemies. There are hairy species of ladybirds.|
|...e in soil, some also in water. The larval phase ( in total 3 stages) lasts for about 8 days. In Europe the adult flies take 2 to 3 weeks to hatch. The high reproduction rate of Muscidae (about 8 generations per year), is due to the large number of enemies they have - and not due to a dramatic increase in their numbers.
A number of species (outside Europe) are known to transmit diseases such as dysentery, cholera, hepatitis, polio, anthrax, typhoid fever or sleeping sickness.|
|...viposition the brood cell is closed with a seal. The hatched larvae feed on their food stock for some weeks before they pupate.
Some species overwinter as larvae, others as adult mason bees. The latter are already active in March. The natural enemies of mason bees include the larvae of cuckoo beeswho feed on the eggs of the mason bees and their food stores.
|Insectivores are natural enemies of the Black garden ant. A colony of ants may comprise 500 insects, including the queen.|
|... By July, the next generation has already reached maturity. In southernCentral Europe, Lygus pratensis reproduce twice a year. The adults overwinter in moss, leaf litter or under tree bark.
Ichneumon wasps (Ichneumonidae) are the primary natural enemies of Lygus pratensis. |
|...m and scutellum are covered in black dots. The keel of the abdomenís roof shaped underside has a sting-like appendage. Beside the legs are defensive glands, which produce secretions with an unpleasant odour, when there is a threat from their natural enemies (i. e. birds). In the larvae these glands are located on the abdomen. |
|natural young body (1)|
|wasp enemies (1)|
|diseases by ladybirds (1)|
|bumblebees and dysentery (1)|
|what are ladybirds enemies (1)|
|ichneumon wasp reproduction (1)|
|what are bumble bees enemies (1)|