|...not initiated through courtship by the males, takes place in May/June. Through the use of a special grip, the male spiders avoid the femaleís deadly bite and leave after mating. In order to store the fertilized eggs, females produce a dark green cocoon , and encase it in a fine white web. . The cocoon is attached to parts of plants (mostly leaves) and is guarded and protected against predators by the mother until the young spiders hatch, which takes about 100 days.|
|...s or larvae of their hosts. Rubytail wasp larvae always hatch before their hostís larvae. Approximately 14 days after the rubytail wasp larvae hatch, even the food supplies of their hosts (only insects, no pollen) have been consumed, and they spin a cocoon for themselves in the hostís nest and pupate, either immediately, and then either to fly as another summer generation in the same year, or to overwinter inside of the cocoon. This assumes that the host larvae overwinter as well. The rubytail wasp is able to synchronize its development with the annual cycle of the various host larvae. |
|After mating, the females erect a cocoon for the eggs. The white cocoon is 6 - 7 mm in length and is hidden, at a slight distance from the hideout of the spider. After reaching maturity (after the last moult) the life expectancy of the males is very short, and most die shortly after mating. |
|Mating season is in May. Most males die after mating - those that survive can be encountered until July. The females spin a flat cocoon covered with light coloured spider silk in the creases in leaves, rolled up leaves or under rocks for their eggs. Having finshed the cocoon, they spin themself a roof shaped shelter in which to reside, while guarding their brood. The spiders hatch and reach their final stages of development in autumn. The young spiders overwinter under loose bark. On warmer winter days they leave their ...|
|...trees. Its need for heat often drives it to seek out human settlements. The females spin webs almost the whole year round. The adult spider can be encountered from high summer to late autumn. The eggs (laid by the female) survive the winter in a cocoon. The young spiders hatch in the spring.|
|...r larvaeís hosts. This happens near the brood-cells which have adjacent food stores. The young larvae hatch after a few days and start eating the hostís eggs or larvae. Later on they feed on the stored nectar and pollen. Pupation takes place in a cocoon within the hostís breeding cell.
|...er surface. The last segment bears the forked tail. The meadow brown is found almost everywhere, but is rare above 1600 metres.
Eggs are laid on the soil or on grass. The caterpillars shed their skin twice. They overwinter and pupate in May. The cocoon is spun on a blade of grass and is yellowish-green. The next adult meadow browns emerge in June.
The meadow brown is active from June to September. It reproduces once a year. |
|...e, but prefers farmland and gardens. The adult moths eat nectar from thistles, phlox and petunias. The silver Y produces several (overlapping) generations a year. The caterpillars, which feed on clover and various vegetables, overwinter in a kind of cocoon. |
|...in places where other plant material rots. During their development (3 to 5 years) they profit from the warmth created by the decomposition of the plant material. The mature larvae pupate in a cavity approximately the size of an egg, surrounded by a cocoon. The adult beetle hatches and remains in this dwelling for a few weeks. Adult rhinoceros beetles can be observed outdoors from June onwards. They fly at night. Their life expectancy is around 4-5 weeks. |
|...the threads of the web to get the full attention of the female. When the female is ready, she takes position on a mating string at the rear of the web. After mating the male spider leaves.
The female autumn spider creates several white, round cocoons onthe branches or the bark of trees for the protection of the eggs. Up to 100 yellow eggs are laid in these cocoons. A few days later the female autumn spider dies. The eggs overwinter in the cocoon. The new generation hatches in spring.
Some natural enemies of the autumn spider are: insectivores, birds and other spiders from the family pirate spiders (Mimetidae), for example species of the genus Ero.|