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|Wool Carder Bee / Leafcutting Bee (Anthidium manicatum)|
|...atum are 11 to 12 mm in length.
The Anthidium manicatum lives on nectar and pollen, which it collects from plants such as Stachys, sage or motherwort. It nests in pre-existing holes in earth, masonry or wood. The females build individual cells for their eggs using pieces of leaves bound together by a substance they secrete. They then supply each cell with pollen or nectar, before introducing an egg into the cell. After egg-laying the cell is sealed. When the larvae hatch, they live on the pollen and nectar for weeks before pupating. The Anthidium manicatum reproduces once a year. The females are active from June to October, the males from June to September. On rainy days the a...|
|Both males and females overwinter. In spring they mate. When it is time to lay eggs the female gnaws a tunnel into dead wood, up to 30 cm in length. At the end of the tunnel is a cell which is approximately 2.5 cm wide ; the female brings pollen and nectar here and lays an egg. She then seals the cell with chippings which she glues together with her saliva. In the direction of the exit the female then builds a new cell and then another and so on. When the larvae hatch they are like maggots and they develop for 3 weeks. They then turn into pupae and finish their development in June.|
|While the males in autumn die after mating, the females overwinter hidden. In spring they dig a nest, which consists of the main course (leading diagonally into the earth) and several short side galleries leading to the cells for the brood. They lay one egg only in each brood cell. The egg is located on a nectar pollen mixture, which (as food for the larvae) also is introduced to the brood cell. In summer the bees of the new generation slip. The parent female specimens survive until June.
|Pollen is a floury substance, produced by seed plants. It consists of single grains (microspores) with a resistant wall (sporoderm). The sporoderm has an inner (intine) and an outer (exine) structure.
The cell is completely surrounded by the intine. The outer layer of the intine has a high pectin content, which allows easier detachment of the exine. The inner intine consists mainly of fibrils (cellulose). When the pollen grain germinates, the intine develops into a pollen tube.
The exine has two-layers and consists mainly of sporopollenin. The structure is determined by the pollen grain. Pollen grains vary in size, shape and surface struct...|
...ains are usually spread singly (monads) but may also be released into the air in groups of two or four (dyads or tetrads). Pollenkitt is capable of holding pollen grains together in groups. This can also be done with sticky threads of sporopollenin, cellulose or protein. Each 4 pollen grains are formed simultaneously in pollen sacs of pollen mother cells. The pollen sacs are situated in the anthers of the stamens. The innermost layer of the exine antheres forms and nourishes the pollen grains. Pollen is spread by wind, water or living organisms. This also leads to pollination.
For many people, ...
|...ects. The females build individual brood chambers inside the nest using glandular secretions and leaf pieces. ) They deposit pollen and nectar in each brood chamber for the future larvae before they start laying eggs. After oviposition the brood cell is closed with a seal. The hatched larvae feed on their food stock for some weeks before they pupate.
Some species overwinter as larvae, others as adult mason bees. The latter are already active in March. The natural enemies of mason bees inc...|
|...ts. Their larvae mostly live as parasites in the nests of some kinds of bees or wasps, for example, digger wasps or solitary wasps. The fertilized females lay their eggs in spring in the nests of their larvaeís hosts. This happens near the brood-cells which have adjacent food stores. The young larvae hatch after a few days and start eating the hostís eggs or larvae. Later on they feed on the stored nectar and pollen. Pupation takes place in a cocoon within the hostís breeding cell.
|...he end of the third and last larval stage the bodies of the larvae can reach lengths of up to 3 mm. The bodies are yellowish-white in colour and have no legs. The larvae remain in the leaf and bite twisting (serpentine like) passageways into the cell tissues by moving their mouth hooks up and down. Hence the English name "Serpentine leafminers" for the genus Liriomyza. The outer layer of the leaves remains intact.
After 4 days the larvae are fully developed and leave the leavesí in...|
|...site, which is equipped with food stores. The young Gasteruption larvae hatch after a few days and start eating the hostís eggs or larvae. Later they feed on the stored nectar and pollen. Pupation takes place in a cocoon within the hostís breeding cell.|
|After mating, the fertilized females lay their eggs separately in each brood cell in the nests of mason bees (Osmia), Anthophora, potter wasps (Eumenidae), pill wasps (Eumenes), Vespidae or sphecoid wasps (Spheciformes). The host insects try to prevent the rubytail wasps from entering their nests, however the latter are not only ...|
|After completion of the nests, the eggs are laid, one in each breeding cell. After 2-3 days the white maggot-like larvae hatch, and are fed with captured honey bees by the mother. The female larvae clearly receive greater consideration than the males. The larvae live inside the body of the bees. After each flight for new su...|
|wasps with leaves in their mouths (1)|
|Wasp brings leaf into wood (1)|
|bees using leaves for eggs (1)|
|wasp like insect that lays eggs and seals with leaves (1)|
|wasp using leaves (1)|
|wasp eggs on leaves (1)|